Friday, July 10, 2020

Fusion: Fundamentals and SystemCORP

Excerpt from the press release:

Fundamentals and SystemCORP Energy have each built businesses on a combination of know-how, innovation, engineering, products and services, in particular but overlapping areas of expertise. But coming together now as a single Fundamentals entity will create a fusion reaction, generating more energy for innovation than our two separate elements.

On a more immediate and practical level, SystemCORP and its employees in Perth are being incorporated into Fundamentals Australia Pty Ltd., adding to Fundamentals’ existing bases in Sydney, together with our headquarters in Swindon, UK,  and facilities in Bristol and Oldham. This will greatly enhance the mutual support we can provide for customers in both countries – and increasingly worldwide, as we continue to grow.

Click HERE for the complete press release.

Tuesday, June 30, 2020

SCADA Security Matters Should Matter

The SCADA Security and Cybersecurity of critical infrastructure challenges are growing very fast. In order to follow a great source of information provided by a gray hair senior expert please visit the following pages:

Learn what the expert Mr. Vytautas (Vytas) Butrimas has to say.

Wish us all power systems that are hardened to withstand any attack from inside and outside!

Stay safe!

Wednesday, May 20, 2020

Sampled Values and IEC 61850-9-2 LE: What is it?

The other day I received the following email:

Dear Mr. Karlheinz Schwarz,
I am sorry to disturb you. My name is XXX and I am a researcher from YYY. I would like to ask some questions to you regarding the standard IEC 61850-9-2LE.

1) May I know the status of IEC 61850-9-2LE? Is the standard will be obsolete or remain as it this?

2) Can I get some explanations from you about the differences between IEC 61850-9-2, IEC 61850-9-2LE and IEC 61869-9?

I really appreciate your kindness and time to answer my questions above.
Thank you & best regards,
I have a very good friend that I asked to answer for me. Her is his answer:
Dear Karlheinz, 
Sure I can do my best for that.
Thanks for this opportunity.
Dear XXX, please see my attempt to answer.
Your questions are our everyday’s questions, and my answers need to be taken with “common sense”, reasonability and not as law, where somebody is right and somebody is wrong.
This is the best I can say.
The IEC 61850-9-2 Light Edition (LE)  is NOT a standard.  It is an UCA profile; a sort of gentlemen agreement (followed by everybody so far), where in principle the dataset carried by the SV Message (Sampled Values message) is fixed to 4 voltages and 4 currents.
The sampling frequency is 80 samples per period (4000 Hz for 50 Hz systems and 4800 Hz for 60 Hz systems).
The length of the SV message is fixed (in terms of bytes)
The quality string has one “extra bit” (the 14th bit, for derived or measured of the analog quantity) compared with a “normal quality string” of IEC 61850 and also IEC 61869 series, of 13 bits.
The time synchronization is 1-PPS
There is formally no support for PTP time synch (typical of “Edition 2” of IEC 61850 standard. LE is “edition 1”)
There is formally no support for “SIMULATION” mechanism (typical od “Edition 2 “ of IEC 61850 standard; LE is “edition 1”)
And many others.
It is commonly understood (and you have to make sure it is commonly understood also by the people working in your projects: suppliers, consultants, utility engineers etc) that:
- 9-2 LE supports Simulation mechanisms
- 9-2 LE supports PTP as time synch (be careful that PTP is actually IEC 61850-9-3: 2016 )
Even if formally this is not strictly in line with the UCA specification for “LE”.
So, IEC 61850-9-2LE (written by UCA working group) is a profile of IEC 61850-9-2 (written by the IEC committee TC 57)
And today it is the only “standard” that is implemented and in service for process bus applications.

IEC 61869-9 (and also -6 and also soon the -13) are parts of the IEC 61869 series, written by the IEC committee TC 38 (Instrument Transformer). 
So they have to do with the Merging Units, they are also profiles somehow, and also many other requirements, that you need to fulfill if you want to have a Merging Unit according to IEC standards.
To my opinion, no matter what IEC 61850 says in general, if you do a Merging Unit and follow IEC, you should follow IEC 61869 series.
In principle, the IEC 6185069-9 standards are often associated to:
  • “Dynamic” dataset. This means that not only 4 U and 4 I will be transmitted. I can transmit just  one voltage, or 25 currents, or 6 voltages and 3 currents.. This is done from SCL.
  • Sampling frequency of 4800 Hz, no matter the power system frequency (50 Hz or 60 Hz).
  • PTP time synchronization (for MU)
  • 2 samples per SV message (so called ASDU). “LE” has only one sample per message (one ASDU per message)
But it is of course much more than that.
What about protection relays/protection functions?
TC 95 is responsible for protection functions in IEC.
In principle it  is TC 95 / MT 4 (Maintenance Team 4) that takes care of functional standards for protection functions (IEC 60255-121:2014 for distance protection for example). Other maintenance teams take care of protection related standards like EMC etc.
Recently TC 95 has started a new working group (WG 2) that considers IEC 61850 for protection applications. A Technical Report is on its way and parts of that technical report will be implemented in the so called IEC 60255-1xx series, for protection relays.
But this is not ready yet and all of this needs to be considered with extreme care and communication among all the involved parts in a project.
I work as well as consultant for IEC 61850 applications in relay protection. Mainly for TSOs, since many years. Please have a look at this paper, written by many of us active in TC 95 / WG2. I think it will help you to better understand.
If you are interested in what TC 95 / WG2 does, you are more than welcome to contact me and I’ll help you in joining “our” activities.
For your understanding, there is a high dialog between TC 95, TC 38 and TC 17 (circuit breakers) for making the use of IEC 61850 more interoperable not only at “data level” but also at “functional level”, at least for protection applications.
For metering or power quality applications, for example, I don’t know what to say.
I hope this helps you.
Karlheinz, your extra comments are always welcome.
My best regards
Andrea Bonetti
Just passed

 Fachtagung Schutz- und Leittechnik 2020 , Berlin, 18-19 February 2020

Mr. Andrea Bonetti MSEE
Senior Application Specialist Relay Protection and IEC 61850
Active member of IEC TC 95 / MT 4 ”Measuring relays and protection equipment” since 2006.
Megger Sweden AB
Rinkebyvägen 19, SE-182 36 Danderyd (Stockholm)

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

New GOOSE and Sampled Values Performance Test Platform

GridClone developed a new GOOSE and Sampled Values Performance Test Platform:

SIMFLEX IEC 61850 PT Platform

It is a solution for testing GOOSE and Sample Values time performance, functional behavior and conformance to the standard.

  • Inspect GOOSE/SV behavior on microsecond level
  • Simulate multiple GOOSE and SV Streams
  • Execute (pre)conformance, detail and functional testing
  • One solution for GOOSE/SV and MMS testing
  • Demystify process bus complex behavior
  • Ready to integrate fully automated platform
  • Building trust in Digital Substation by testing it
  • Resolve GOOSE/SV issues in system design phase
  • Maximize level of details and minimize testing time
Click HERE for more information.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Tissues For IEC 61869-9 Could Be Posted

Please note that a new part has been added to the IEC 61850 Tissue Database:

Part 9-2 (related to IEC 61869-9; 2016)

IEC 61869-9 defines: Instrument transformers -
Part 9: Digital interface for instrument transformers

IEC 61869-9:2016 is a product family standard applicable to instrument transformers with digital output. The product standard is composed of IEC 61869-1 and IEC 61869-6, in addition to this standard and the relevant product specific standards in the IEC 61869 series (Part 7, Part 8, Part 12, Part 13, Part 14, and Part 15). This standard defines requirements for digital communications of instrument transformer measurements. It is based on the IEC 61850 series, UCA international users group document Implementation guideline for digital interface to instrument transformers using IEC 61850-9-2, and the relevant parts of IEC 60044-8 that are replaced by this standard. It includes additional improvements including the IEC 61588 network based time synchronization. This first edition replaces the corresponding specific requirements previously contained in IEC 60044-8, published in 2002. This International Standard contains specific requirements for electronic low power instrument transformers (LPIT) having a digital output. However, the reader is encouraged to use its most recent edition. This publication contains an attached file in the form of a .xml file. This file is intended to be used as a complement and does not form an integral part of the publication.

Click HERE for more information.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

IEC 61850 Is Very Crucial For Semantic Models And Interoperability

IEC 61850 provides a huge number of generic and specific semantic models ... Logical Nodes, Data Objects, Common Data Classes, Instance-Information, Topology Information, Information Exchange, Communication, Protocols, ...

Can you please show me an easy to understand example! Here you are!

The following figure shows how (meta) model information is added to a simple voltage measurement (right upper corner). The value is wrapped with a data object model comprising with many attributes like instCVal.mag.i or units ...
The logical device and and logical node instance information is added next. Finally the semantic of the information exchange (report model) is applied to the value - sure, there is a data set involved as well (not shown here).
All this information (general and specific (instance) semantic) could be described in an SCL document (using an XML based SCL schema). Note that some configuration information, e.g., engineering unit (kV), may be contained in the SCL document only. The device needs to process implicitly the voltage in kV. A device may allow to use the SCL document to configure the device to expose the voltage in V ... or mV ... A client (SCADA or ...) may read out the model at runtime (including the engineering unit, if that is implemented as a model attribute) or may just read locally the SCL document and get the engineering unit from the file. Note: the SCL document is the main document for the models and configuration ... keep it safe!! And check the online read model against the SCL file from time to time to compare the two in order to figure out any change!

Further in our example we have a simple bay topology with electrical equipment like generator, switch gears, voltage and current sensors. This topology could be engineered and documented with the SCL (System Configuration Language) - an XML schema for a whole system. The equipment is assigned to specific information models (MMXU.PhV.phsA. ...).
The system engineering could be managed, e.g., with the Helinks STS Tool. An easy to use tool.
The generic Information Model, e.g., MMXU (defined in IEC 61850-7-4) is concatenated with the application designation (MyGenSets/Gen11).

The various levels of semantics of the Message elements are:
  1. Model Instance: Hierarchical Identification of the specific Model of Semantics (in SCL) 
  2. Message Elements: Service Type, Identification, Value, Quality, and Timestamp (ACSI - Abstract Services)
  3. Message Instance: Service Type, Instance of Identification, of Value, of Quality, and of Timestamp (Report)
  4. Message semantic (ACSI mapped to MMS)
The modeling approach of IEC 61850 could be applied in most automation domains ... especially when electric power is applied.

Let me know please if there is a similar standard model defined for automation systems that may compete with IEC 61850 and IEC 61400-25. 

Why Do You Need a Pocket Lamp for a Smart Meter?

The other day I was really surprised reading a letter to the editor of our local newspaper here in Karlsruhe. The Writer reported that he had to use a pocket lamp and morse code for a PIN to activate the screen of a smart meter. The DSO had told him the benefits of this ... nobody else can see the metered values ;-) ... and the meter is protected from outside ... because it is not connected to any communication medium ... OK. He summarized in stating that the meter is not smart - but it is a Smart Business Case for somebody.

I searched for "smart meter taschenlampe" and got several hits. Here is one ... in German language ... but you will understand it. Enjoy!

Click HERE for a nice video demonstrating how to use a pocket lamp to communicate with the Human Machine Interface of a modern smart electric meter.

What do you think? How much would you pay for this Smart Meter? ... 20 Euro/year!

Friday, March 6, 2020

Do You Know ISO/IEC 9506-6 - The MMS Process Control Companion Standard?

Long time ago (may be when you still went to Kindergarten) there was an international standardization project defining a set of standards that offered comprehensive sets of services and models for Industrial Automation Systems:

ISO/IEC 9506 Manufacturing Message Specification (MMS)
- Part 1 (Services) and Part 2 (Protocol)

MMS was developed in the 80s and published in 1990. The standardization in ISO TC 184/SC5/WG2 took place in the context of the GM led MAP project.

Part 1 and Part 2 comprise the basic definitions for any application domain.
Click HERE for useful hints and explanations what MMS is and how it is used for IEC 61850.

The Companion Standards have been developed for specific applications:

Part 3 Companion Standard for robotics ISO/IEC 9506-3
Part 4 Companion Standard for numerical control ISO/IEC 9506-4
Part 5 Companion Standard for Programmable controllers ISO/IEC 9506-5
Part 6 Companion Standard for Process control ISO/IEC 9506-6

Part 6 seems to be a simple forerunner model of IEC 61850 for communication services models and applications models.

Cover page:

Excerpt of the application model related to a process variable (Data Model in IEC 61850):

Excerpt of the reporting model related to the report control block model in IEC 61850:

Unfortunately all MMS parts have (more or less) been ignored by the industrial automation domain. As one of the experts deeply involved since 1985 I know a bit what happened ... the most crucial reason was: many experts that did not (WANT to) understand the benefits of MMS have led to the situation today: No comprehensive unique standard for information models, services, protocols, ... has been offered for the industrial automation ... even in Industry 4.0 there is not yet one in preparation - as I see it. Even OPC UA is still looking for domain specific models ... may "copy" IEC 61850 models!?

Sure: IEC 61850 is much more than MMS !!! But MMS could be understood as a kind of forerunner for IEC 60870-6 (TASE.2/ICCP), IEC 61850 and IEC 61400-25 (Wind).

Thursday, March 5, 2020

IEC 61850 und eCl@ss - Interoperabilität durch standardisierte Informationsmodelle

Interoperabilität durch standardisierte Informationsmodelle

Der „eCl@ss“-Standard ermöglicht den digitalen Austausch von Produktstammdaten über Branchen, Länder, Sprachen oder Organisationen hinweg. Wie ein Produkt nach „eCl@ss“ mit Merkmalen nach IEC 61850 ganzheitlich zur Interoperabilität auf den Ebenen Produktbeschreibung, Systemengineering, Gerätekonfiguration, Informationsaustausch und Protokolle ergänzt werden kann, zeigt der nachfolgende (frei herunterladbare 5-seitige) Beitrag im etz Heft 12/2019 (Link siehe unten):

Hier klicken, um das gesamte etz Heft 12/2019 inklusive des obigen Beitrags (Seiten 30-35) herunterzuladen. 

IEC 61850 Schulungen bei der FGH Mannheim

Die FGH Mannheim (Forschungsgemeinschaft für Elektrische Anlagen und Stromwirtschaft e.V.) bietet folgende Schulungen bezüglich IEC 61850 an:

Grundlagen und Anwendung der IEC 61850 (CHANGES)
Seminar -> Will be a Webinar ... no details on Website of FGH (2020-03-19)
22.04.2020 - 23.04.2020

IEC 61850 und ihre Anwendung bei der Steuerbox des Smart Meter Gateways
04.05.2020 - 18.05.2020

Die Basics der IEC 61850
14.09.2020 - 09.10.2020

2020 - IEC 61850 Events in UK, USA and Belgium

Dear All,
Please note the following IEC 61850 training opportunities and conferences:

3-Day Training for Electrical Engineers New to IEC 61850
17-19 March 2020
London, UK

IEC 61850 USA 2020
Driving the large-scale deployment of IEC 61850 across the smart grid
14-16 July 2020 
New Orleans, USA

IEC 61850 Global 2020
Leveraging advanced IEC 61850 features to drive interchangeability within the substation and across the wider smart grid
26-30 October 2020
Brussels, Belgium

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

IEC 61850 Edition 2.1 of Core Documents Published

The other day IEC TC 57 has published five more parts as Edition 2.1 - it took several years to get there! But finally it was successful.

I would call these Edition 2.1 documents simply the real Edition 2 documents.

First of all, what does Edition 2.1 mean?

The original edition 2 documents needed some corrections and updates. All crucial corrections et cetera have been documented in the Tissue Database ( The solutions provided on the Tissue Database have been used as input to the standardization process and led to amendments number 1 of the corresponding parts. These amendments have been commented and balloted officially by the members of TC 57. These amendments 1 are now the official documents that are amending the edition 2 documents (both are valid for the next years).

In order to make the "edition 2.1" more readable and understandable, there are other documents available: The consolidated parts 2.1 ... comprising the "old" stuff, the fixes and the extensions.

Consolidated Version of part 7-2: :

So: This consolidated version consists of the second edition (2010) and its amendment 1 (2020). Therefore, no need to order the amendment in addition to this publication.

Note: The first Tissues for edition 2.1 have already be posted, e.g., for part 7-2 Edition 2.1:

The following Previews for edition 2.1 consolidated versions are available:

Preview IEC 61850-6 Edition 2.1
Preview IEC 61850-7-2 Edition 2.1
Preview IEC 61850-7-3 Edition 2.1
Preview IEC 61850-7-4 Edition 2.1
Preview IEC 61850-8-1 Edition 2.1
Preview IEC 61850-9-2 Edition 2.1

Note: The name spaces (code components) for the edition 2.1 parts will be available soon - I hope:
Click HERE for the list of available name spaces (code components).

Draft IEC 61850-90-16 (Requirements for System Management) Published

IEC TC 57 just published the draft Technical Report (57/2190/DC)

Draft IEC TR 61850-90-16:
Communication networks and systems for power utility automation –
Part 90-16: Requirements for System management for IEC 61850

It contains the key use cases which will be the foundation for defining an appropriate solution meeting these requirements ... to be incorporated into the Technical Report.

This time it is a good chance to help getting the needed use cases defined.

To understand the importance of this part, please check the Introduction:

"The distribution grid is facing a massive roll out and refurbishment of automation equipment to implement deeper monitoring and new smart grid applications. The new equipment to be deployed in order to solve today’s issues (MV voltage and reactive power regulation for example) will necessarily have to be adjustable and updatable in order to face challenges of tomorrow (for example massive electric vehicles fleets, low voltage automation, …) which will arrive long before the end of its 20 years’ service life. Furthermore, there is a necessity for the equipment to adapt to the evolving and growing cyber security threats.
The equipment will therefore need to be patched, updated and reconfigured, and this has to be done remotely due to the great number of equipment. This is a cornerstone of the System Management (SM), which refers to functionalities that are not directly linked to the operational role of the equipment but allow it to perform its operational functions in the best conditions possible. System Management or Smart Grid Devices Management also includes other functions such as asset management or supervision.
These functionalities need to be managed by the grid operator and address multiple devices from
different vendors through independent Information Systems and thus the requirements and exchanges need to be standardized. As these are to be applied to IEC 61850 compliant equipment, these mechanisms need to be integrated in the standard."

By the way, I have not seen anything similar in the non-electric standardization domains. These requirements are more comprehensive than what is in most cases needed for operational purposes. Let's have a look at the German FNN-Steuerbox: It defines currently mainly changing the active power limit (W) ... more or less one value coming from the grid operator or from a pre-configured schedule running at the Steuerbox. Ok. Then there are several needs to log various events ... and finally there is a need for updating certificates, firmware, patches, ... so the core operational object may require only a small fraction of what needs to be defined, specified, implemented, configured, and used. The people may complain: Why is it so expensive for just one setpoint to be modified?

Congratulation to the experts writing this part 90-16.

Saturday, February 29, 2020

How Many and Which Information Models are defined in IEC 61850?

I guess you have heard that IEC 61850 defines a lot of Information Models. Yes, You are right.

The models are managed exclusively by the corresponding working groups with the Enterprise Architect UML Tool (the UML data base is for internal use only). The model version:

UML model of 61850 (wg10built6-wg18built3-wg17built5-jwg25built2-tc17built1-tc38built1.eap)

comprises the following number of Logical Node Classes, Data Objects (Attributes), Enumerations and Abbreviations:

An excerpt from the UML modes looks like this:

The UML Model is the single source data base that is used for the extensions and maintenance of the model, as well as the generation of Word or PDF documents ... The PDF documents are sold by IEC and other organizations.

You may complain that the standards are not for free ... hmm ... BUT look: You can download the various Code Components for free.

Click HERE for the Code Component for (IEC 61850-7-4 2007A2 NSD light, see the IEC 61850-7-4:2010 for full legal notices). The full version has additionally the semantic descriptions of the models.

Example of Enumeration:

Example of excerpt of LN Class MMU:

Click HERE to see the list of all Code Components as per today ... more to come soon.

To my understanding you can model many required information generated and consumed by a huge number of applications in almost all application domains of automation in the electrical system and beyond.

As the above example of MMXU shows, you can use this LN Class wherever you have 3 phase AC system!! In a building heating system for the electrical values of a compressor or a fan or a pump or ... the blue sky is the limit for the applications.

Click HERE to learn about crucial details discussing the LN Class MMXU and how it can be applied ... you may have never expected this comprehensiveness of the MMXU.

Note that the 3 phase system was first (more than 100 years ago) - then we have put a facade in front of the measurement function which exposes the measurements as data objects of the class MMXU. The application has driven the class - not vice versa.

The current edition 2.1 models defined in IEC 61850-7-3 and 7-3 are listed in the contents tables of the preview documents. The following Preview documents (free access) for models of the edition 2.1 consolidated versions are available:

Preview IEC 61850-7-3 Edition 2.1
Preview IEC 61850-7-4 Edition 2.1

Example of 7-4 from the preview:

In case you find any error in the standards, please visit the Tissue Database:

Friday, February 28, 2020

Is Industry 4.0 Really a Revolution? And IEC 61850?

There are so many discussions, concerns, arguments ... Pros and Cons regarding Industry 4.0 or the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4.0, IoT, IIoT, Cloud, Edge, data lake, ...).

The most remarkable statements I have heard are from Mr. Ralph Langner who does not believe that it is a revolution at all ...

"Is Industrie 4.0 actually the 4th Industrial Revolution as touted by it's many proponents. Ralph Langner tackles that question in this 20 minute video from S4xEurope."

Click HERE for the youtube video of his presentation (20 min)

Please find some personal opinions:

Please find a paper discussing the "sprint" versus "marathon" in automation of electric power systems I wrote in 2012 through the following post:

Here is part of my experience:

I was (as a 21 year old skilled worker in 1973 ... just married) responsible for maintaining a fire alarm system with 6,000 alarm buttons (from a famous vendor ... full of TTL chips ...). The system stopped almost every night ... I had to drive downhill 60 km ... to switch it off and on and go back home ... I was not skilled enough to do anything serious about it ... just wrote reports to my boss ... he ignored everything ... I quit my job in 1974 and went back to high school in January 1995 and university in 1977 ... 7 1/2 years later I finished university with four kids in 1982 ... went back to that same company ... quit again in 1992 partly, in 1997 completely ...

The most crucial reason to quit in 1992/1997 was: The standardization of industrial communication systems in IEC TC 65 released a myriad of non-interoperable Fieldbusses ... good for selling standards ... very BAD for maintenance people and many others ... can you imagine to be an expert in tens of fieldbusses?!

Check out this post:

Oh my dear ...

I just checked my personal records from the 70s and found the weekly reports of my daily maintenance activities ... spent many days to switch off/on the Fire Alarm System ...

This may happen every hour these days where maintenance people just switch IEDs off and on ... in the hope that it will work after restart.

We need more well educated and skilled experts!!! ... grey hair seniors ...

What's about IEC 61850? Is the introduction of this standard series different compared to the fieldbus standard series IE 61158? Sure ... there is a crucial difference:

MANY Fieldbus standards for ONE application (real-time data exchange) ...

ONE IEC 61850 for MANY applications (real-time, protection, asset data, configuration, engineering, ...SCADA, ...).

IEC 61850 series is quite comprehensive and complex ... Yes. But: it seems to be easier to learn and experience ONE complex standard than to do this for 50+ solutions!! IEC 61850 is not a revolution - it could be used to extend existing solutions ... it provides a new approach that could prevent the proliferation of hundreds of vendor-specific solutions ...

And when it comes to security, there is ONE standard series (IEC 62351) for IEC 61850, IEC 60870-6 (TASE.2), IEC 60870-5-104, DNP3, ... 

Thursday, February 27, 2020

IXXAT Smart Grid Gateway With NEW Possibilities

IXXAT (HMS) has offered their Smart Grid Gateways for some time. Click HERE for some blog posts that give you a good overview of the possibilities so far (HERE for HMS or HERE for Beck).
The other day IXXAT has published an extended range of possibilities to share information between many different communication solutions in almost ALL automation applications:

SG-gateway IO
SG-gateway M-Bus Master
SG-gateway EtherNet/IP


SG-gateway Media Converter
SG-gateway Switch

All types support as well:

Modbus-RTU master/slave via RS232/485
Modbus-TCP master/slave
DHCP server, SNTP, Network trace (pcap), SNMPv2c
OPC-UA server
Codesys network variables


IEC 60870-5-104 client/server with redundancy (Norwegian User Convention)
IEC 60871-5-101 master/slave
IEC 61850 client/server (both roles and GOOSE pub/sub are supported simultaneous)
IEC 61850 GOOSE publisher/subscriber
Outstation DNP3
Hardware versions with 3G or 4G modem

Click HERE to visit the IXXAT website for an overview (German).
Click HERE to download a new 12 page pdf bochure (German).

Wednesday, February 12, 2020

Fundamentals of IEC 61850 training programme

Smart Grid Forums offers a 3 day training on IEC 61850 Fundamentals:

17-19 March 2020 
London, UK

Click HERE for details.

You may download selected presentations from 2019:

1. IEC 61850 Standardisation Update - Christoph Brunner
2. New Industrialised Substation Automation System - David MacDonald
3. IEC 61850 System and Tool Testing - DNV GL